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Many of the benefits of disposable nonwoven wipes in the workplace over laundered and reusable cleaning materials (what are referred to in the US as ‘shop towels’) have been pretty well demonstrated over the past 30 years.
Yet in the USA, there has been a long-running fight to level the playing field for them – to the extent that eight years ago, questions were even asked in Congress about Richard Farmer, the founder of laundered workwear andservices supplier Cintas, which employs 30,000 people and had sales of $3.8 billion in 2011.
His influence as a big donor to the presidential campaign of George Bush was questioned at that time, but eventually found to be not outside the realms of acceptability.
The long-running problem for nonwoven wipes in the US stems from the 1976 US Environmental Protection Agency’s Resource Conservation and Recovery Act – RCRA – relating to the treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous waste.
Under the RCRA, most common industrial solvents are considered hazardous, and as a result of the ‘mixture’ rule, if a single drop of hazardous waste is mixed with non-hazardous material, all of that material is considered hazardous waste.
This has meant that both non-laundered wipes and rags are regarded as hazardous waste after they’ve been used with solvents and are subjected to stringent and expensive hazardous waste management requirements
Meanwhile, laundered shop towels used with the same solvents are generally not deemed waste – instead their regulation has been left to individual states, with requirements varying significantly from state-to-state and often conflicting.
Speaking at the recent World of Wipes (WOW) conference in Chicago, Jessica Franken, director for governmental affairs for INDA (the International Nonwovens and Disposables Association) explained that the non-disposable industry has used the exclusion of its products from the federal regime to its marketing advantage, pointing out that with laundered towels, RCRA requirements don’t have to be dealt with, making them both much cheaper to use and a lot less trouble.
“This has limited our industry’s ability to compete, and allowed laundered shop towels to rule the market,” she said.
Now, however, things are changing – the RCRA looks likely to be significantly amended this August.
The importance of this to the overall $5.4 billion US wipes market was underlined by INDA president Rory Holmes at the WOW meeting.
US sales of rags, shop towels and disposable nonwoven wipes were worth around $2.6 billion at retail in 2011, split between 59% industrial end-uses, 18% in healthcare, 17% in food services and 6% other speciality uses.
It’s in the general industrial markets and in food service that this new opportunity is envisaged.
The general industrial market is worth around $.1.57 billion, with $760 million currently generated by shop towels, $344 million by rags and $468 million by nonwoven disposables. In food service, shop towels account for $310 million and nonwoven wipes $132 million of the $442 million market.
So given the advantages of disposable wipes, there could shortly be a new $1+ billion market they could claim.
And this is even before taking into account the results of a new survey undertaken on behalf of Kimberly-Clark.
In a nutshell, this has found that laundered shop towels contain a wide variety of heavy metals, which can get onto the hands, and then be inadvertently transferred to the mouth and ingested.
These far exceed US Environmental Protection Agency health-based recommendations, and suggest that the days of the laundered towel may be numbered.
Indian textiles dating between 14th to early 19th century, which are on display in Singapore, reveal the creativity of Indian artists with their striking patterns and inventive motifs. It also traces the history of trade and cultural exchanges during the time when India might be said to have clothed the world.
The impact of Indian philosophies and religions on the cultures of Asia and beyond is well-known. But an on-going exhibition of 70 rare textiles at Singapore’s Asian civilizations museum (ACM), Patterns of Trade: Indian Textiles for Export 1400-1900, has brought focus on the popularity of Indian textile art during medieval and ancient times.
“Historical records that date back to first century China and Rome point towards beautiful and richly drawn, painted and dyed, cottons and luscious hand woven silks from India. The Romans evocatively described the fine Indian muslins as ‘woven air’, which were so popular that Pliny – a famous Roman statesman – protested about Rome’s coffers being emptied to cater to the vanity of Roman women,” informs Marina Thayil, volunteer docent at ACM.
The oldest examples of Indian trade textiles have been found at sites near the Red Sea. Small fragments from 15th century were discovered at the Greek trading post of Berenike in Southern Egypt. Other discoveries at Quesir Al Qadim and Fustat, both in Egypt, have been dated to ninth and 10th centuries respectively.
By 15th century, Indian textile traders had developed a complex network from Africa to China. When Europeans landed on Indian shores in their quest for spices, they were also seduced by the high-quality materials, colour-fast dyes, floral patterns, sacred motifs, and geometric forms of the Indian textiles.
Though most designs depicted traditional Indian patterns such as elephant hunts, animals, rows of lively dancers, and even elegantly dressed women battling fantastic beasts, textile artists also responded to foreign demand and adapted designs to regional tastes. Moreover, textile designs from India influenced designers all around the world. The bright floral prints and dense rich styles of Victorian and Edwardian Britain were direct descendants of Indian chintzes traded to Europe few hundred years ago. “These textile arts show the spread of multifaceted Indian culture with all its subtleties across several continents, and especially to South-East Asia,” added Alan Chong, director at ACM.
During the peak of the trade in mid-17th century, millions of yards of Indian cloth were being sold in markets as far as Japan, Africa, Middle-East and Europe. India’s central location in the Indian Ocean basin was ideal for trading textiles to both East and West, with Gujarat, the Coromandel Coast and Bengal being the major trading centres.
Artisans in India used natural dyes to colour textiles as they lasted for a long time without fading. The leaves of the indigo plant was used to produce blue; roots of madder, shell of lac beetle and wood of sappan tree for red; seed of myrobalan tree, jackfruit tree root, turmeric and pomegranate rinds for yellow; an extract of acacia tree for brown; and a mineral form of iron acetate to produce black. The artists used to over-dye yellow on indigo blue for producing the green colour.
The most widely-used production technique was called Ikat (a Malay word which means ‘to tie’). In this, the threads were tied and dyed prior to being woven into cloth. This was done either with warp (vertical) or weft (horizontal) threads. When both were dyed before weaving, it was called double Ikat or Patola. “The technique of producing Patolas was so skilled that the art remains in only three places in the modern world – Tengana in East Bali, Indonesia, Ryuku islands in Japan, and in Patan, Gujarat – where only one extended family of weavers called Salvi still continue this tradition,” said Thayil.
Other techniques included Kalamkari, resist dyeing (batik) and block printing. Kalamkari was a method used to draw or paint designs onto cloth using a mordant – a colourless substance that binds dye to the cloth. In batik technique, molten wax or some other thick paste containing ash or mud was painted onto the cloth to block the absorption of colour in a dye bath.
The medieval Indian textile trade to Europe mainly depicted design pattern called Chintz, which was resist-dyed fine cotton with elaborate floral designs. Another diamond-shaped pattern called Geringsing, was found in double Ikat Patolaclothes traded in Asia. The Balinese weavers of Tengana still produce clothes with this motif using the weft-Ikat technique. But the trade declined in mid-19th century when Europe was exporting more cloth to India than it imported. “Earlier, a combination of high-quality, low prices and striking designs made sure that even high-tariffs and import restrictions such as the British Calico Act of 1701, couldn’t do much to halt the Indian textile trade. But in the late 18th century, European artists adopted Indian wood-block-printing techniques, invented synthetic dyes and developed cheaper manufacturing methods such as engraved copper plates and roller printing. The advent of steam power during the industrial revolution resulted in exponential increase in productivity, enabling European traders to capture much of the Asian and African markets with cheaper and better quality clothes. Thus ending the 500-years of Indian monopoly over the world’s textile trade,” concluded Thayil.
Shibori is the Japanese word for a variety of ways of embellishing textiles by shaping cloth and securing it before dyeing.The word comes from the verb root shiboru, “to wring, squeeze, press.” Although shibori is used to designate a particular group of resist-dyed textiles, the verb root of the word emphasizes the action performed on cloth, the process of manipulating fabric. Rather than treating cloth as a two-dimensional surface, with shibori it is given a three-dimensional form by folding, crumpling, stitching, plaiting, or plucking and twisting. Cloth shaped by these methods is secured in a number of ways, such as binding and knotting. It is the pliancy of a textile and its potential for creating a multitude of shape-resisted designs that the Japanese concept of shibori recognizes and explores. The shibori family of techniques includes numerous resist processes practiced throughout the world.
Shibori – A Definition
Shibori is the Japanese word for a variety of ways of embellishing textiles by shaping cloth and securing it before dyeing. The word comes from the verb root shiboru, “to wring, squeeze, press.” Although shibori is used to designatc a particular group of resist-dyed textiles, the verb root of the word emphasizes the action performed on cloth, the process of manipulating fabric. Rather than treating cloth as a two-dimensional surface, with shibori it is given a three-dimensional form by folding, crumpling, stitching, plaiting, or plucking and twisting. Cloth shaped by these methods is secured in a number of ways, such as binding and knotting. It is the pliancy of a textile and its potential for creating a multitude of shape-resisted designs that the Japanese concept of shibori recognizes and explores. The shibori family of techniques includes numerous resist processes practiced throughout the world.
Shibori is used as an English word throughout this book because there is no English equivalent. In fact, most languages have no term that encompasses all the various shibori techniques, nor is there English terminology for individual methods, which often have been incorrectly lumped together as “tie-and-dye.” Three terms for separate shibori methods have come into international usage: plangi, a Malay-lndonesian word for the process of gathering and binding cloth; bandy an Indian term for the same Process; and tritik, a Malay-lndonesian word for stitch-resist. However, these three terms represent only two ofthe major shibori techniques. In this context, the word shibori seems the most useful term for the entire group of shaped resist textiles. It is the hope of the authors that “shibori” will win acceptance in the international textile vocabulary.
The special characteristic of shibori resist is a soft- or blurry-edged pattern. The effect is quite different from the sharp-edged resist obtained with stencil, paste, and wax. With shibori the dyer works in concert with the materials, not in an effort to overcome their limitations but to allow them full expression. And, an element of the unexpected is always present.
All the variables attendant on shaping the cloth and all the influences that control the events in the dye vat or pot conspire to remove some of the shibori process from human control. An analogy is that of a potter firing a wood-burning kiln. All the technical conditions have been met, but what happens in the kiln may be a miracle or a disaster. Chance and accident also give life to the shibori process, and this is its special magic and strongest appeal.
Some of the basic Shibori techniques:
Miura Shibori – named after a Doctor’s wife who brought the technique to Arimatsu from Shikoku. Whereas most Shibori is made by tying knots around points of material, Miura Shibori consists of looped binding, keeping out less dye. It produces softer effects and is much cheaper. Commonly used for common clothes like yukata.
Arashi Shibori (“storm” Shibori). A length of cloth is folded and wrapped around a four-meter pole. The folding method produces a storm-like effect of lines and dashes, hence the name.
Kumo Shibori (“spider web” Shibori). Arimatsu is famous for the quality of its handmade Kumo Shibori. While it is possible to produce a highly regular spider-web pattern by machine, artisans in Arimatsu are renowned for the regularity of their hand-made kumo Shibori.
Nui Shibori – (“stitched” Shibori). The material is sewn to form the pattern before dyeing.
Suji Shibori – hand folded over a rope core in a similar fashion to arashi Shibori, then bound and dyed. The material is then dyed, dried, and then carefully untied. The untying is one of the most important phases – it is vital not to distort the material or the entire piece and months of work are ruined. Finally, the material is steamed and stretched to remove creases. http://www.yamasa.org
What is Shibori?
Introducing a Japanese tie-dying technique (in the words of a Japanese shibori artist)
When foreigner think tie-dye, they visualize huge, random blotches of bright color on cotton, reminiscent of the 1960’s styles. When foreigner think of Japan, they usually think of Mount Fuji, Geishas, Samurai and kimono. Once stationed in Japan, however, the stereotype images change.
Shibori is a type of dyeing in which certain areas on the cloth are reserved from dyeing by binding dots or stitching. There are about 15 different kinds of tie-dye techniques. Each technique is so difficult that one can not master all of them in a lifetime.
There are many steps to follow: After designing the pattern of the cloth, the artisan must draw thousads of tiny dots
which follow the pattern. Each dot must then be bound by thread to separate that piece of the 150,000 binding dots are needed to finish a short-sleeve kimono. This process takes at least a year to complete, depending on the design. When the fabric is completely bound, the material must be bleached to remove stains. Finally the fabric is dyed, which becomes a more complex process with each added color. When the dyed material is dry, the strings which bound it are removed. At that time, we usually tore the fabric. Then we sell the toned cloth at an unbelievably low price.
Shibori made in kyoto is done by hand on silk material. Not a single shibori comes out the same. I am a member of shibori artisans. And at 30 is the youngest. Most of them are in their 70’s and 80’s. The serious problem we face right now is the aging of the artisans. And second problem is expanding the channel of customers to keep the art of shibori going. So we are working on the work of “the cultural heritage of the world” and “a famous picture (example the Mona Lisa) “by shibori technique. It takes 2 year to complete with 40 artisans working in their spare time. “This way, we have something we can leave for our descendants which carries forth the traditional of our ancestors.” http://shibori.jp/english.htm
The development of the relatively newly established field of “wearable art” overlaps with that of shibori, which offers unprecedented potential in creating a wide range of textures on cloth. The rich sensuous colors and pliability of the material respond well to the movement and flow of the body. The works now attract creative individuals, celebrities, and collectors; and wearable art expression has established its place between high fashion and art in North America.
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“Studying ancient Textiles has been a passion for me since long and the Indepth study and research into Benaras Brocade textiles was done by me in the early 90,s when we did not have the facility of search engines and internet information. All these information was painfully researched and collected from books and by speaking to various weavers from Benaras. Calico Museum in Ahmedabad and the National Institute of Design Library were 2 places which was the key source of Information.
By publishing this article i wanted to share my knowledge to all the textile designers so they could utilize for their professional endeavours.” Smitha Nayar
Benaras & its brocade woven textiles.
History & Origin of brocades in Benares-
Benaras is situated on the Calcutta- Delhi rail route, 678Kms from Calcutta.
Although Benaras has always been a big textile centre, there has been no direct mention of the Brocades of Benaras in early literature. The earliest mention of zari or jari (metallic thread) textiles of Benaras is found in 19th Century. With the migration of silk weavers from Gujarat during the famine of 1603, its likely that silk brocade weaving started in Benaras in the 17th Century and developed in excellence during the 18th &19th century.
Benaras is now a world famous centre of hand made textiles. Other centers in India also produced and continued to produce the zari brocade types of textiles. But the ancient tradition of weaving is more preserved in Benaras than anywhere else.
Classification of Brocades-
The word can be interpreted as Kim in Chinese means golden and Khwab- dream. “Golden Dream”.
It’s also interpreted as Kamkhab. Something so beautiful that one can rarely dream of it – “A rare dream”.
The various Kimkhwabs are-
The pure cloth of gold and silver.
Fabrics in which gold and silver plays a predominant role and colored silks interwoven at places to emphasize the design.
Since this kind of fabric is too heavy for apparel it is generally used as panels in Temples.
Bafta or Pot Than:
They are closely woven colored silks with selected parts of the design in gold & silver threads.
Predominantly they are silk fabrics with very little metallic thread or a border sewn to it.
All the above fabrics come under Kimkhwabs, the only difference being the varying degree of gold.
These are described as a specialty of Benaras and were produced for the people whose pockets could not afford the Kimkhwabs.
Amru’s is a pure silk fabric without any zari work.
They are cotton and silk mixed fabrics very popular among the Muslims. Their characteristics are Khanjari (wavy line effect) which is produced by tie dyeing the warp. Muslims consider silk very unholy because silk being an animal fiber is obtained by killing the silk worm. Though mashru is a silk fabric it is still acceptable to them because it’s intriguing construction. The warp is of silk and weft is of cotton. The weave being a warp faced one brings out the silk to the surface while the back gets a predominance of cotton which is worn against the skin.
A fabric in which the wavy line is produced not by the tie- dying effect but by a process of weaving in which the different wefts are employed.
The warp is generally of two colors one of each kind being used together hence Sangi (san together).
Chalta or Sattinete-
Cotton and silk mixed fabric calendared in a way that the fabric gets a sheen.
The design used are Kanjiri, Doriya, Charkana etc.
Abe – Rawans
Plain fabrics with spots or specks produced by the dyeing.
One can get very confused with the various terms used in the trade. The terms used for various types of fabrics are given below under Trade Name.
Main Characteristics of Benaras Brocade Fabric:
Heavy gold work
Figures have small details
Metallic visual effect.
Pallavs- A wide middle portion with the decorative motifs all over, with one cross border on the top and another at the bottom.
Border usually with a decorative Jhalar ( inside edge)
Old madanpura weaving has a delicate texture.Chatai (Mat)*, Khajuria ( Kalgha)*, Conia (kalgha placed in the each corner of a rectangular layout of the pallav) are common.
Old Alaipura weaving has a heavy texture, large designs, more karwan* and Mina work*. Small coins are sometimes used in the pallav. Kimkhabs especially for Nepal and Tibetan markets are woven.
Dye Stuffs For Dying of the yarn-
Vegetable dyes Kusum (Safflower, Cartha Mus Tinctorium) were used for yellow yellow- red, light buff and orange.
Kamila– (Mallotus philipinensis) and Akalbar (Datiscuscannabin) used as with Indigo to fix yellow.
Katha – ( Catechu – For black colour)
Indigo with yellow dye – for dark green.
Haldi (Turmeric) – To produce various shades of yellow.
Khaki ( grey) – From Hara ( Myro balans and Kasis).
Lac – Various shadeds of red.
With the availability of synthetic dye the practice of using vegetable dyes practically disappeared, as the use of synthetic dyes was easier, cheaper and less time consuming.
Types of Yarns used –
Silk Yarn, Raw silk, Tanduri, Banaks, Mukta, Sandal, Ghungaru, Waste silk, Tussar silk, Kala Butta.
Kalabuta is the gold and silver thread. Its not a wire of gold but a specially prepared thread of silk with metallic mounting of silver and gilded.
Equipments’ & Tools
Benaras Naksha or Jala Loom- A Throw shuttle pit loom having naksha or Jala for lifting warp threads for weaving patterns. Heald shafts are used for ground weaving patterns. The Pagia tie up is placed behind heald shafts.
Benaras Jacquard loom- A pit loom the level of which is slightly raised having a jacquard machine mounted on a frame or hung from a frame fixed to the ceiling.
Natawa – The thread from the reel is transferred to a Natawa which is a bamboo frame with a central axis.
Pareta- It consist of a central bar, made of slender bamboo sticks, supports by spokes which sloping down wards assembles together and forms a cone.
Khali – This instrument is useful for intermediate steps between the processes. Twisting silk threads while it’s transferred from the reel of Charka on to a Khali or retransferring from Khali to Pareta.
Tagh – The silk in the passage from the Pareta to the Charkha only gives a slight twist. Further twist is applied to the warp threads by means of Tagh.
Techniques and Processes
Weaving – The process of weaving silk Brocades and the looms and equipments used are not generally very different from those employed in weaving other fabrics.
The pre weaving process involves sizing and warping. The usual practice is the single thread or ball sizing. When dry, this is warped by pale warping process. The size (Kalaf) is generally fine white flour (Nishasta). Drying of the sized yarn is done in open air by spreading the sized yarn.
Ground weft is as usually wound on pirns for shuttles, and the extra weft on small bamboo spools called Tillies, sirkies ect. Dor pattern weaving, where extra weft runs along the entire or almost entire width of fabric the weft is wound on pirns for shuttles. These are throw shuttles.
The loom used in weaving is a pit loom. The warp is not wound on a beam but on a bar called Bhanjni. It’s secured in the middle with a rope which is taken round a peg, or to another Bhanjni. Its secured in the middle with a rope which is taken round a peg, or to another Bhanjni and then round a peg fixed within reach of the weaver, where he weaves the cloth.
While weaving, water is sprinkled on the warp for moisture with a small broom like implement called an agbur. To keep the warp threads clean and straight in position the warp is brushed sley by a brush (Kuncha) which is also used while warping.
Brocade loom is a draw loom in which healds are substituted by pagia (Horizontal harness) operated by Naksha. The naksha is mounted on the loom, tied to the bamboo bars hanging from the ceiling. Naksha is also called the jala in same places.
Finishing – Finishing of cloth consisted of washing, smoothening and calendaring. The cloth with metallic thread was washed in water to which soap nut powder (Aritha) & ½ Kg sugar is also added. This brings brilliance to the metallic and fast colored threads. After a wash, the cloth is spread over on a block of wood (Kunda) with a level and smooth surface and is rubbed with a flat blade (Pitni). Smoothening down are the designs standing out of the surface of the fabric. The cloth is then folded & the top most folds is well pressed, smoothed and glazed by a round polished and flat bottom implement called ‘Mohra’ pressing by heat iron rods is also practical for flattening the yarn. (Calendaring) in the fabric & enhancing the fullness (covers) of the cloth.
Advance Techniques of Brocade Weaving:
The Invention of Jacquard machines have made a great progress in the silk weaving of Benaras. Heavy Jacquard machines are used and the designs repeating on as many as 30,000 cards are woven. However jacquard machines have their limitations and for weaving very fine textured fabrics the Naksha is more suitable.
Satin Buti Saree ( Silk) Benaras:
Ground- The Face is with in a satin weave.
Broder– The border is 8cms wide including a selvedge of 1 cm. Consist of two stripes on either side of decorative Jari- painted twill.
The centre panel has Kalghas in gold Jari & red and mari gold motifs in white Jari and red enriched by small floral motives & a decorative silver jari figure. They both alternate.
Body: It’s an all over pattern of decorative pendant motif within an oblong pointed at both ends; the pendent motif is in silver jari & red outline. The ground is white in a satin weave.
Pallav: It consist of a cross border of 7 cms, followed by a satin plane white ground. The cross border is of the same as the lateral border.
Silk Tanchoi Saree, Benaras 1973.
Ground– The face is white in a warp satin weave. The back is pink in weft satin.
Border– Border is 6.5 cm wide including 5 cm of selvedge. The Border has a central decorative panel flanked by two narrow stripes. The central panel is in green & pink. While the narrow stripes are in light green.
Body– It has an all over design with floral sprays and pairs of small decorative ‘Kalghas’, all in light green and pink.
Pallav– the cross border is of a similar pattern to that of the border, but slightly narrower. It is 5 cm wide, the decorative stripes projecting outward, followed by a white sating ground, 18cm in width.
Baluchar Badshah Saree (silk) Benaras 1973.
Ground– The ground is deep mauve in plain weave.
Border– The border has a central panel repeats of two blocks of figures and a Kalgha. One block has figure if a badshah (king) with flowers in his hands & the other has a female probably representing a queen. The entire border is woven in extra weft technique, gold jari in the Kardhwaan techniques.
Body– Buties of diamonds, small mangoes and leaves and floral motifs are placed in plain order weft way. The buties woven in extra weft jari is Kardhwan technique, decorated by Mina work on green, turquoise-blue, orange, violet brown.Pallav– Cross border followed by fabric with simple jari line. The extra panel is woven in gold jari, decorated by Mina work in orange, violet turquoise blue, brown and green.
Jangla saree(silk), Benaras 1973
Ground– The face and back are satin weave.
Border– it consist of a central panel flanked by stripes of a plane line, parallelogram blocks, one line, decorative panel, one line, parallelogram blocks and two lines in order on either side, on a mauve background. An extra stripe of a leaf & dot pattern projects towards the body. The central panel has a pair of leaves and a flower repeating. One of the leaf and inner petals of flowers are in extra weft silver jari worked by the Kardhwan technique and the rest in extra weft gold jari woven by Fekwa technique. The extra weft weaves are in twill, satin and floats.
Body– The pattern has similar motifs of pairs of leaves and a flower as in the border but larger in size, repeating all over the white satin ground in a Jangla pattern.
Pallav– The cross border is in the same pattern as the border, except for the extra stripe of leaf and dot on a mauve satin ground. It is followed by a mauve satin portion with gold jari liners alternately in a sequence of two and one.
Minadar Saree (silk) Benaras 1973
Ground– The ground is pinkish mauve in a plain weave.
Border– Border consist of a central panel flanked by online, dots, two lines, parallelogram blocks and a line in order, on either side, on a mauve ground. The central panel has repeating decorative large circular motifs in gold Jari and mina work. The mina work is in orange and turquoise blue.
Body– It is an all over design where large decorative, circular motifs are laid in rows, the interspaces being filled in with small, decorative motifs of leaves and flowers. The inner area is decorated with mina work in small floral motifs in Turquoise blue and orange with a central floral motif in Jari.
The inner area circumscribes of three circles one of gold jari, one of gold jari & mina work in orange and turquoise blue. The gold jari weave is extra weft which is also woven plain.
Pallav: It’s a simple pallav having gold Jari lines.
Kimkhab Dress Material Benaras 1973
Ground Weave– It’s an 8 end warp satin. It’s a fine Kimkhab dress material, with a block satin ground. Kalgha motifs are in different sizes and shapes and small decorative motifs are worked on in gold zari and mina work in red and turquoise blue, fill almost the entire fabric, with a black ground showing up for contrast in the interspaces. The design is in extra weft in small floats of jari and mina which also weaves with the ground black warp threads in a satin order.
Satan Tanchoi saree Benaras 1973
Ground– The face is blue in a satin weave.
Border– Consist of a central panel flanked by one fine line, a line of rectangular spots in order, on either side. The central panel as well as the stripes on either side has decorative flowers, leaves. The flowers are pink with blue dots, yellow star shaped centers and yellow outlines while the leaves and buds are in green with a yellow outline. In between two repeats of such motifs in the central panel are two parrots sitting on a small flower symmetrically opposite each other. The parrots are in green and pink with a yellow out line. The rectangular spots are in pink & yellow. The fine lines are in yellow. The ground is blue.
Body: It has sprays with pink flowers, green leaves and two parrots opposite each other are laid in half drop, plain order weft way on a blue satin ground. The colors remain the same as that of border.
Pallav: It has across border of the same pattern as the border, followed by a plain blue satin portion.
Emboss Tanchoi Saree( silk) Benaras 1973
Ground– The ground is violet blue in plain weave.
Border– The border consist of a central plane flanked by two lines, a stripe of a arrows, two lines, one decorative stripe of arrows on either side. The central part is decorative with repeats of a floral motif. All floral motifs are in Jari with a pink out line and a leaf. Other motifs are in pink with a gold jari outline. The background is violet blue. The stripes on either side of panel are also similar. The arrows in the stripe alternate in gold jari and pink.
Body– The ornamentation of the body is in the same pattern as that in the border all over the blue body.
Pallav- The cross border is in the same pattern as that of the followed by a plane blue portion with double gold line.
Evolution of Benaras Brocade:
Silk Brocade started in Benaras in the 17th century. Benaras is a world famous centre for hand made textiles in which the ancient tradition of weaving is preserved.The two main localities of Benaras were the manufacture of Brocades are concentration are Madanpura and Alaipura. Dosipura is another locality were some old weavers and Naksa makers lived and their descendants are carrying on the traditional work.
Some of the main characteristics of Benaras Brocades are its heavy gold work,the metallic visual effect, the figured motifs having small details and compact weaving.The Pallavs of the sarees are the most heavily brocaded part with awide middle portion of decorated motif allover with one cross border on the top and another at the bottom.
The brocaded fabrics are classified according to the structure, design, weight , motif and the process of manufacture of the fabric. Some of the names are KimKhwabs, Mashru, Amru, Aberawans, Minadar, Tanchoi, Satan Jari Tanchoi, Satan Kardhawan Jangla ect.
The Invention of Jacaurd machines have made a developmental advance in the technique of Brocade weaving. However Jacaurd machines ahev their limitaions, for weaving very fine textured fabricsthe Nakhsa is more suitable.
End Use of Brocades:
The Brocade fabrics produced are used for various Products
Sata Buti Saree
Silk Tanchoi Saree
Baluchar Badshah Saree
Silver Buti Saree
Emboss Tanchoi Saree
Ada Organza Saree
Murti Satin Saree
Satin Jari Tanchoi Saree
Butidar Minakari Saree
Kardhwan Brocade saree
Ajanta Satin Saree
Kimkhab Dress Material Fekwa Design
Brocade fabric Trade names:One can get very confused with the various terms used in the trade. The terms used for various types of fabrics are given below under Trade Name.
1. Tanchoi: Plain weave body with one color extra weft, one color body weft and one color warp.
2. Satan Tanchoi: Satin weave (4 ends & 8 Picks or 5 ends and 5 picks) with the warp in one color and the weft in one or more colors. The extra weft of the design also may be used as body weft.
3. Satan Jari Tanchoi: Satan Tanchoi with weft in the order of one silk and one gold thread. Jari or two silk thread (double) and one gold thread.
4. Satan Jari Katrawan Tanchoi: Satan jari Tanchoi in which the floating extra weft gold at the back is cut and removed.
5. Satan Kardhawan: Satan or satin jari Tanchoi in which the extra weft is laid by spots (tillies) for figure work.
6. Wascut: Plain woven body, with designs by small floats made by the weft used for body weaves.
7. Satin Badla Chunri: 5 end satin woven body with kathan (twisted silk) and gold thread. The extra weft is flattened silver thread (badla) which makes small spot figures and also inters weaves in the body.
8. Katan Butidar : Fabric with ‘Kata’ warp and weft butties of gold thread or resham ( Untwisted Silk)
9. Minadar: Figures in metallic thread having portions woven in coloured thread of cotton or silk.
10. Tahiriri Mina: Figures with only outlines in mina.
11. Guddi Mina: Figures with mina inside.
12. Tahiriri: Figures with outlines in gold or silver thread.
13. Jari Ganga Jamuni: Figures with both gold and silver threads. The following is the typical example in which the ground colour is brick red colours. The upper figure part is of gold where as the lower part has the silver thread. At the upper part 2 leaves are of silver and central portion of the upper part has the violet silk thread. It is a dress material design.
14. Katan Butidar Mina: Katan butidar with mina work in butties.
15. Silk butidar Mina: Silk butidar with mina work I butties.
16. Katan Buttidar pagia saree: Saree with cotton warp, resham work. Small buties all over body closely spaced wide border and wide pattern.
17. Katan Brocade: Fabric with Katan warp and katan weft with figures in gold thread with or without mina in Katrawan Kardhawan and fekwa styles.
18. Emboss Brocade- katan brocade with all over pattern with figures very close to each other, leaving little ground cloth.
19. Georgette Saree: Saree with highly twisted silk yarn usually 3 ply.
20. Tissue saree or Tar bana: Sarees with unbleached single silk warp (28/32 denier) and single gold weft with or without design in extra gold weft.
21. Jangla: Plain fabric of Katan warp and katan weft with all over floral designs in extra weft.
22. Katan Katrawan Mina: katan in Katrawan style with mina.
23. Jaal: A fabric with a design as a net pattern.
24. Kimkhab: Fabric with a heavy texture appearing in layers, satin weave with katan in layers, satin weave with ‘katan warp’ and ‘Katan weft’ and all over design in gold or silk.
25. Gyasar: Silk fabric with Kimkhab,s structure with ground in which gold thread is profusely used and with Tibetan designs. Made especially for Tibetans for dress as well as decorative hangings, players mats.
26. Gyanta:Silk fabric with Kimkhab structure with satin body with or without gold thread. Tibetan designs made especially for Tibetans. These sometimes have Tantric designs (Tchingo) of human heads with 3 eyes in gold and silver thread on a block satin ground.
27. Jangla:Plain fabrics of silk warp and weft with all over floral designs in extra weft.
Terminologies of Patterns used in Brocade:
1. Doriya- Pattern in Longitudinal stripes.
2. Salaidar- Pattern in transverse stripes (width of fabric).
3. Ada Doriya- Pattern in diagonal stripes.
4. Khanjari or Leharia- Pattern in wavy or angular lines.
5. Charkhana- Pattern in circles.
6. Ilayecha- Pattern in Lozenges shape figures.
7. Bulbulchasm- Pattern with lozenges shapes with dots in the centre.
8. Mothra- Pattern in double lines.
9. Pulwar- Running patterns of leaves and flowers.
10. Jhardar- patterns of sprays.
11. Patridar- Pattern of leaves.
12. Waskat- Phulwar design but raised above ground.
13. Tamami- Stripes of double gold threads 7 red silk threads.
14. Buti- A sma;; single flower.
15. Buta- Large single flower.
16. Bel- A running floral pattern.
17. Adi Bel– Scroll running diagonally or obliquely.
18. Chanda– A circular figure with floral or geometric designs.
19. Turanj– Decorated mango shaped butti.
20. Kalghi– Turanj buti with the pointed end turned around and further decorated.
21. Kalgha or Kalanga– A turanj but larger in size.
22. Pan Buti– A buti of heart or betel.
23. Fardi Buti– A buti made of points or dots.
24. Teen Pankha– Buti with three leaves.
25. Sat Pankha– Buti with seven leaves.
26. Tara Buti– Buti resembling a star.
27. Jamewar Buti– Buti resembling bushes in landscape.
28. Ashrafi Buti– Gold Buti circular shape.
29. Tambakhu Buti– Buti of foliage of Tobacco plant.
30. Jharad Buti– Buti of spring branch.
31. Gulab Jhar– Buti of Rose flower.
32. Champak Buti– A buti of Champa flower.
33. Minatashi Buti– Any buti decorated with coloured silk.
34. Chameli Buti– Buti resembling Jasmines.
35. Guldaudi– Buti resembling chrysanthemum.
36. Masuri– Buti comprising of Lentil shaped circles.
37. Genda– Buti resembling Marigold.
38. Gende ki bel– Creeper with butis of Marigold.
39. Chameli ka bel– Creeper with butis of jasmine.
40. Jal– Design with net like geometric all over patterns Jaldar.
41. Jangla– Natural motifs all over designs.
42. Shikar Gait– Hunting scene or forest scene.
43. Tanchoi– Plain body with one colour extra weft.
44. Satin Tanchoi– Satin weave 4 ends & 8 picks or 5 ends & 5 picks with warp in one colur & weft in other.
45. Jari Tanchoi– With weft in the order of one silk and one golden thread.
46. Satan Jari Katrawan Tanchoi-Floating extra weft gold threads at the back is cut & removed.
47. Satan or satan Jari Tanchoi– Extra weft laid by spools ( Tillies for figure work)
48. Wascut– Plain body with small floats of design.
49. Satin Badla Chunri– 5 end satin woven body with katan ( Twisted silk) and gold thread. Extra weft flattened with silver thread (badla) which makes small spot figures.
50. Katan Butidar– Fabric with Katon warp and weft with butis in gold thread.
51. Minadar– Figures in metallic thread.
52. Tahiri Mina– Figure with the outline of Mina
53. Guddi Mina– Figures with mina inside.
54. Jari Ganga Jamuna– Figures with both gold and silver thead.
55. Katan Butidar Mina– With Mina work in Butees.
56. Katan Butidar in Paga saree– Saree with Katan warp, Resham weft and small buties.
57. Katan Brocade– Fabrics with katan warp and weft with gold thread figure with or without minakari, Katrawan, Kardhwan and Phekwa styles.
58. Emboss Brocade– Katan brocade with all over pattern.
59. Georgette Saree– Saree with highly twisted silk yarn.
60. Tissue sarees or Tana Bana– Unbleaches simple silk warp and single gold weft.
61. Jangla– Plain fabric with katan warp & weft.
62. Katan Katrawan Mina– Fabric in Katrawan style with Mina.